NASA's aerospace agency continues daily scanning of our galaxy in search of new planets and systems scattered in the vast expanses of outer space. Humanity has sent many probes into space, from the Voyagers to the Juneau. And they all have a common task – to study the solar system and what is beyond it.
Perhaps the most effective tool for finding exoplanets at the moment is the space observatory Kepler. Probably, you have already noted more than once that most of the worlds discovered are named in his honor.
Although every year we began to find a lot of exoplanets, most of these worlds are lifeless boulders located at distant and unexplored stars. But, it turns out, even among them are so unusual specimens that even the most astrophysicists are sometimes forced to scratch their nape. We suggest that you familiarize yourself with the ten most effective ones. Not the occiput, but the exoplanet, of course.
The Frozen Ball. Planet OGLE-2016-BLG-1195Lb
OGLE-2016-BLG-1195Lb is an icy planet located 13,000 light-years from the solar system. The temperature on its surface can vary from -220 to -186 degrees Celsius, why it is often called an "ice ball".
A light year is a relative measure of the distance that will need to be overcome if we move with the speed of light for a whole year. The speed of light, in turn, is approximately 300,000 kilometers per second, or more than one billion kilometers per hour. In other words, if we want to look at this ice ball personally, then we will have to fly to it very long and at very high speed.
At the moment, the fastest known man-made object in space is the space probe New Horizons, sent to study the planet Pluto, its moons, and the Kuiper Belt objects in 2006. Its speed is just over 58,000 kilometers per hour, which is much lower than the speed of light. This all means that we do not yet have technologies that would allow us to visit the nearest system, even if it is only a few light years away. Therefore, we use long-range observation technologies to detect and determine some characteristics of distant exoplanets and their atmospheres. The same OGLE-2016-BLG-1195Lb was detected using the microlensing method – when the planet passed by its star, a brief decrease in its brightness was observed.
Scientists believe that the ice of the planet OGLE-2016-BLG-1195Lb consists of water. The news is definitely excellent, but we are unlikely to be able to use this water in the near future. Of course, you can guess infinitely, but who knows, maybe this planet can be used by highly developed and technologically advanced alien civilizations as a source of fresh water.
Hell in the flesh. The planet KELT-9b
KELT-9b is the hottest exoplanet ever found. It is so hot that it literally kills itself, burning its mass. It is 650 light-years from us and is constantly turned one side to its star.
Being a gas giant, it is about three times larger than our Jupiter and the temperature at its surface is 4315 degrees Celsius. This is more than most of the known stars, and almost as hot as the surface of our Sun, which burns at a temperature of 5505 degrees Celsius.
In a few million years, KELT-9b will completely burn out, and then completely disappear, leaving only a single star next to it.
The World of Water. The planet GJ 1214b
The planet GJ 1214b represents a huge "water world", three times the size of our Earth, and is located about 42 light years from our solar system. All the water on the Earth is only 0.05 percent of the mass of our planet, while the waters of the GJ 1214b have so much that its mass is 10 percent of the total mass of the planet.
Scientists suggest that the GJ 1214b has oceans, whose depth can reach up to 1600 kilometers. For comparison: the deepest point on the planet Earth, the Mariana Trench, goes down just 11 kilometers.
We have investigated only about 5 percent of the area of our oceans and have already managed to discover countless living beings, whose existence was not even suspected. Just imagine how much deep sea terror can be hiding under the ocean floor of the GJ 1214b!
Planet PSR J1719-1438 b. The best girlfriend of girls
The planet PSR J1719-1438 b is a giant pure diamond. In the literal sense of the word. The diameter of the carbon planet is about five times greater than the diameter of the Earth. It is located in 4000 light years from the solar system. Because of the very powerful force of gravity and the pressure exerted, the planet turned into one giant diamond.
This exoplanet revolves around the millisecond pulsar PSR J1719-1438. Astronomers believe that this pulsar was once a very massive star, which subsequently faded, and then turned into a supernova. Very rare millisecond pulsars are presumably formed due to the absorption of matter in the companion star. That is, earlier this system was also double.
In this case, the companion star, most likely, was a white dwarf, in which our Sun will also turn one day. White dwarfs, we recall, are former massive stars that have developed their own hydrogen and are incapable of supporting thermonuclear reactions inside their nuclei.
A millisecond pulsar may have "eaten" all the matter of a white dwarf, leaving only about 0.1 masses. As a result, the white dwarf turned into a truly exotic companion pulsar – a diamond planet.
The planet Kepler-16b. The present Tatooine
The planet Kepler-16b in fact represents a real analogue of the planet Tatooine from the movie-star "Star Wars". This title was given to her more because Kepler-16b is one of the few exoplanets discovered revolving around a binary star system.
The Kepler-16b mass is about 105 times larger than the Earth's, and its radius is 8.5 times larger than that of our planet. The atmosphere of this world largely consists of hydrogen, methane and a small volume of helium. At about 200 light-years from us, Kepler-16b makes a complete revolution around two of its stars for every 627 of our earthly days.
Despite the fact that the planet looks like Tatooine, Kepler-16b, unlike the latter, can not support life. Suppose that even the droids can not be found there.
The planet Kepler-10b. The Burning World
The planet Kepler-10b is the smallest among the discovered exoplanets, and scientists suggest that its surface is covered with entire oceans of liquid lava. Located about 560 light-years from Earth, the Kepler-10b planet became the first rocky planet found outside our solar system, effectively giving humanity the opportunity to take the first step towards the future of space exploration.
The Kepler-10b surface temperature heats up to 1400 degrees Celsius. As a result, the rock there is literally melted, filling vast areas and forming real oceans of red-hot lava. The planet has a very high structural density, so there is an assumption that Kepler-10b contains a large amount of iron, which adds to the hot lava a brighter red shade.
The Dark Planet. TrES-2b
TrES-2b is the darkest ever detected exoplanet, since it reflects less than 1 percent of the star's light that reaches it. This makes it blacker than coal or black acrylic paint. In fact, it's a miracle that we found this planet, because it hides in the darkness of the cosmos pohlesche any ninja. By the way, this raises the question: how many exoplanets could we miss if there exist such as TrES-2b?
Our hero is about 750 light years from the solar system. Its atmosphere consists of evaporated sodium, potassium and titanium oxide. According to astronomers, that's why the planet reflects so little light, but the final answer to the riddle about why the planet is so dark, has not yet been found, and perhaps never will be. Who knows, maybe some reasonable civilization lives on TrES-2b, but we will never know about it. It's a very dark planet.
HD189733b. Planet with rain from glass
Perhaps one of the most interesting exoplanets in this list is HD 189733b, located 63 light years from us. The fact is that it rains. Rains from glass. Sideways. You read correctly. The winds on this infernal exoplanet can reach 8700 kilometers per hour, so the falling particles from the heated glass, not having fallen on the surface, are chasing horizontally in different directions, cutting everything in its path, after which they all fall on Surface.
Just imagine being stuck on such a planet in a storm!
55 Cancer e. Planet with strange water
Planet 55 of Cancer e is in tidal capture, so one of its sides is constantly turned towards its native star. Due to this, water on its surface can be in a supercritical state – both liquid and in the form of gas. The planet itself is about 25 times closer to the star than our Mercury to the Sun, and makes a complete revolution around its luminary every 18 hours. It's very fast.
The mass of 55 Cancers e is about 7.8 times more terrestrial, and its radius is about 2 times larger than that of our planet.
CoRoT-7b. Planet with stone snow
CoRoT-7b is a truly bizarre planet, because it is snowing with stones!
Like many other exoplanets, CoRoT-7b is in the tidal capture of its star. The temperature on the surface of the side facing the star is 2200 degrees Celsius, while at the same time on the side that is turned away from the star, the average temperature is usually -210 degrees Celsius.
The lava on the illuminated side heats up so much that it evaporates as a result, like water on our planet. This creates massive stone clouds, which after condensing on a relatively cooler side and as a result collapse on the surface in the form of huge boulders. If we could withstand the extreme temperatures on this planet, then the spectacle would open, and the truth is very entertaining.